ヒャクニチソウ-8 八重種,ポンポン咲き 英・白 画譜,バー&サグデン商会,ビートン夫人

Zinnia elegans (violence)
2014年 7月
 1856 年にフランスの種苗商グラゾー (Grazau) によって作出された八重のヒヤクニチソウが改良されたポンポン咲きの品種は,その規則正しい花辧の配列と,花の厚さ・大きさに注目されて,まるで,アスターやダリアのようだとして高い評価を得た.

英国で八重種をイタリアから輸入・育種・販売していたバー&サグデン商会 (Messrs. Barr & Sugden) 1963 年版の春のカタログ (4-1) の “Splendid Variety of New Double Zinnia” の説明文に,「(当社のイタリア)サルディニア駐在員が、昨年の秋に何種かの八重のヒヤクニチソウを写真に撮ったものを送ってきた。その中には,直徑が 3.75 インチ弱で、花の一周が 11 インチあった。別のものには 585 枚の花びらが付いていた。これは商会のために採種した花の良い例である.」とあり,モノクロで画像を掲載した
この八重品種の花とみられる画像は,J. Andrews, Floral Magazine vol 2: (1862) (4-2) に掲げられた.さらに,ほぼ同じ画像がベルギーで発行されたLa Belgique horticole, vol. 11 (1861) にも掲載され (4-3) ,しかも(Google 翻訳で見る限り)フランス語の説明文までほぼ同一である.英国に於いては高品質の八重種の種を扱う種苗店としては,ロンドンの Messrs. Carter & Co. of Holborn ,イプスイッチの Mr. W. Thompsonが有名だった.

4-1, ZINNIA ELEGANS FLORE PLENO, Barr & Sugden's spring seed catalogue and guide to the flower and kitchen garden(1863), Illustrated guide to the flower garden p 8-9
4-2, Zinnia elegans Jacq. var. flore pleno, J. Andrews, Floral Magazine vol 2: plate 92 (1862)
4-3, Zinnia elegans Jacq. var. flore pleno, La Belgique horticole, journal des jardins et des vergers, vol. 11: p. 201, Fig. XII (1861)

4-1                                                4-2                                                4-3
4-1, “Barr & Sugden's spring seed catalogue and guide to the flower and kitchen garden, 1863, Illustrated guide to the flower garden”, p 8-9
A fine genus of autumn-flowering plants, combining the greatest richness and diversity of colour with unequalled duration and profusion of bloom. Amongst the novelties of recent introduction, the New Double Zinnia* stands unrivalled, with its large handsome flowers, rivalling in beauty, size and symmetry, moderate sized Dahlias. Hitherto, the culture of this fine flower has not been attended, in England, with that eminent success which it has on the continent ; this difference is entirely attributable to the superiority of climate ; at the same time -we feel convinced, if the seed was sown early in March, and good stocky plants just out in a warm situation, and in rich soil, early in June, even during an unfavourable season, the cultivator would be rewarded with flowers surpassing his expectation. That they have been grown successfully in this country was satisfactorily proved at the Autumn Flower Show of the Royal Horticultural Society, where a stand of cut flowers, equal in size and beauty to our engraving, was exhibited. Our "Sardinian Correspondent " forwarded to us, last autumn, a photographic group of Zinnia flowers (which may be seen at our establishment) ; one of these measured 3(3/4) inches in diameter and 11 inches in circumferences, another had 585petals ; and these, he informed us, were a fair sample of the flowers from which lie was saving seed for us; we therefore have great confidence in recommending the following collections.  (以下,価格略)

4-2, J. Andrews, “Floral Magazine vol 2: (1862), plate 92”
Zinnia elegans, flore pleno.

There has not been an annual introduced for many years into this country which has received such universal recognition, as an excellent and useful addition to our gardens, as the Double Zinnia; and, although we published a plate of them in our last volume (Plate 53), we make no apology for bringing before our subscribers another group from the pencil of Mr. Andrews, the opportunity of so doing having been afforded us by the kindness of the eminent London seedsmen, Messrs. Carter & Co. of Holborn.

Our reason for so doing is, that there are evidently two distinct strains of them in the country, and one, in our opinion, very much inferior to the other in every quality; in one the flower a comparatively shallow, partaking more of the shape of the old single Zinnia, without much regularity in the dis- position of the petals ; in the other it is of very great depth, exceeding, in some cases, three inches (as in some specimens which we saw in the garden of our friend and neighbour, Mr. Edward Banks, of Sholden*), the petals regularly reflexing, somewhat in the manner of some of the newly-introduced Chrysanthemum-flowered Asters, and disposed very regularly and closely, so as to give the appearance of a thoroughly double flower. It is the latter variety which we have figured; and, although at present absolute certainty cannot be obtained as to every individual seed coming true to character, yet, as some seedsmen advertise them as doing so in the ratio of 80 and 90 per cent., and as the gentleman who is styled the " Sardinian Correspondent" of Messrs. Barr & Sugden announces twenty four varieties, we have very little doubt but that in a year or two we shall be as certain of the seed as we are now of the varieties of German and French Asters.
* This seed was obtained from Mr. W. Thompson, of Ipswich.(以下育種法略)

『ビートン夫人の家政読本』で知られるビートン夫人 (Beaton, Isabella Mary, 1836-1865,左図) は『園芸のすべて』の中でも,バー&サグデン商会の情報を紹介し,花の豪華さ,色の多様性や花期の長さなどの特徴から,一重と八重のジニアは秋の花壇に最適の植物であるとしている.さらに,“Beeton's Dictionary of everyday gardening ... to which is added a monthly calendar of garden work throughout the year" (1909年版) では,以下のように述べている.

Zin'nia (nat. ord. Compos' itse).
A grand genus of autumn - flowering half-hardy annuals, combining the greatest richness and diversity of colour with un- equalled profusion and duration of bloom. The best known are Zinnia elegans with flowers of various colours, white, buff', scarlet, rose, lilac, bronze, violet, and crimson, and its varieties Z. coccinea, scarlet ; Z. flow-plena, with double flowers ; and Z. violacea, purplish-violet. The seed June ; they should be planted in the richest soil and the warmest situation possible. For flower beds, borders, and conservatory decoration, the zinnia is alike valuable.

欧州本土の植物図譜には,八重種のヒャクニチソウの美しい絵が掲げられている.また,当時は背が低く多くの花がつく草花が,花壇用として歓迎されていたので,八重の矮性種も開発されていた (5-3)
5-1                                                     5-2                                                       5-3
5-1, Zinnia elegans Jacq., La Belgique horticole, journal des jardins et des vergers, vol. 12: p. 193, t. 12 (1862)
5-2, Zinnia elegant a fleurs doubles, REVUE HORTICOLE - JOURNAL D'HORTICULTURE PRATIQUE, ANNEE 1861, p258 (1861)

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